|SOFT - TIAFT 1998||Poster Session 1||Wednesday October 7, 1998|
SEGMENTAL AND TOTAL HAIR ANALYSIS TO MONITOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE DURING PREGNANCY|
Karin M. Höld, Diana G. Wilkins, Dennis J. Crouch, Matt L. Cheever, Kimberly J. Shaw, David A. Savitz*, John Thorp , and Douglas E. Rollins
Center for Human Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
Maternal exposure to cocaine (COC) and /or nicotine (NIC) has the potential to adversely affect the developing fetus. Drug self-reports are often unreliable and urine assays detect only recent use. In hair, drug use may be detected several months after the last dose, which provides an advantage over other biological samples. Therefore, maternal hair samples collected postpartum and assayed for COC and NIC in segments at measured distances from the root may provide an estimate of the quantity and timing of COC and/or NIC use during pregnancy.
Women participating in a study to identify risk factors for preterm rupture of membranes and preterm labor provided self-report of drug use, urine and hair specimens to identify those exposed to COC or NIC during pregnancy. Samples of urine and hair were collected postpartum, digested and screened by immunoassay (COC metabolite kit, and Cotinine (COT) urine kit, STC Diagnostics). Positive hair samples were evaluated further by two approaches: 1) analysis of the entire hair and 2) analysis of 1.5 cm segments. The entire hair and segments were digested, extracted and analyzed by GC/MS.
Of the initial 86 women studied, 1 reported the use of COC during pregnancy. Urine immunoassay identified 5 women (5.8%) as having used COC; 18 hair samples (20.9%) were positive for COC. Self-report identified 18 women (20.9%) who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy. Urine immunoassay identified 11 women (12.8%) who smoked during pregnancy; 30 hair samples (34.9%) were positive for NIC. Concentrations in hair by segmental analysis correlate well with concentrations in hair by intact analysis.
The STC immunoassays are sensitive screening techniques for the detection of COC and/or NIC in hair (limit of detection 0.1 ng/mg hair for both compounds). Hair analysis identifies more women who useor exposed to COC and/or NIC than does either self-report or urine analysis. Women who use COC or smoke before the pregnancy show a tendency to moderate or stop their use during pregnancy. Passive exposure to smoke may partially explain the large number of positive hair samples.
Acknowledgements: Supported by HD 28684, and NIDA Grant Nos. DA09096 and DA07820.